Wounds are an injury of the soft tissue (tissue in the body that is not bone). Wounds are generally classified as either a closed or open wound.
Causes: Abrasions (cuts or lacerations), amputation, blow, bite, falling, Fight/punch/hit, motor vehicle accident, puncturing and penetrating (sharp objects, glass, etc).
Signs and symptoms: Bleeding, bruising, pain, redness, swelling.
Open Wound: An open wound causes a break in the skin. The wound can range from something minor like a scrape to a deeper, puncture of the skin.
Closed Wound: A closed wound is a wound on the skin’s surface that does not break the skin. A common closed wound is a bruise, which develops when the body is bumped or hit. A more serious closed wound may be caused by a violent force hitting the body. The person can severely damage tissues, blood vessels and muscles, leading to heavier internal bleeding.
Bleeding from the nose:
- Make sure scene is safe.
- Wear PPE.
- Have the person sit and lean forward.
- Pinch the soft part of the nose on both sides with a clean dressing.
- Apply a cold pack to the bridge of the nose.
- Place constant pressure on the nostrils for a few minutes until the bleeding stops. If bleeding continues, press harder.
Bleeding from the mouth:
- Make sure the scene is safe.
- Get the first aid kit.
- Wear PPE.
- If bleeding is coming from the tongue, lip, or cheek and you can reach it easily, apply pressure with gauze or a clean cloth. Be careful not to block the airway.
- Check for missing or loose teeth. See next training module for tooth injury
- If you haven’t phoned 911 and you can’t stop the bleeding or the person has trouble breathing, phone or ask someone else to phone 911.
Phone 911 if:
- You cant stop the bleeding in about 15 minutes.
- The bleeding is heavy, such as gushing blood.
- The injured person has trouble breathing.
- Signs of Shock.
- Has a major open or closed wound.